Newbie needs assistance for an export

Hi all. I already use the impressive project osm since longer time. For a validation project I need now an export with all villages and cities around the globe. And it looks that I am not wise enough to get the infos how to create the string for e.g. overpass.
As per that the list should contain following parts:

  • Osm node id
  • Name
  • Name:de
  • Name:en
  • Postal_code
  • country

In the end the target is a MS SQL table. every useful intermediate format would be good.

And as you imagine, transmitting and process the whole data set would cost unnecessary ressources. May someone help me?

Have you considered any solution based on ?