edit land shapes and sea

I am a new user and I am studying Openstreetmap.
I have built my own tile server on the cloud following different tutorials, so there is no risk I can pollute public OSM instance.
I installed JOSM and QGIS to edit maps, but I feel a bit lost with all that options and features.
After a while I realized that map data, in this context, are represented by nodes, relations and metadata (apparently nothing to do with lands shapes), but at this point I don’t understand how I can create custom lands for the map. I mean something like opengeofiction for instance.

What editor should I use? And what kind of file should I produce in output to be usable by OSM?

My final purpose is to reproduce a fantasy map with OSM technology.