For example the name of one feature is called “bank” and for another it is called “bureau de change”. If say a bank also had a bureau de change, would OSM count that bank as a bureau de change too or would there be mutual exclusivity?
Tags can have multiple values. However, a lot of consumer applications may have trouble with that (and that includes map rendering software). They may either use the first value, or treat the combined field as though it were a single, unique, and probably unrecognised, value.