Yes you could use most of the outdoor/trail models of Garmins for this. eg something like the Etrex 20, or Dakota 20, or Oregon 600, Montana etc.
Maybe not quite as easy to use as a phone app, but usually fine once you have learnt how they work.
Any of them will let you record a track, plus let you mark waypoints etc. You can add symbols and names/notes for the waypoints. Typing in text for the names can be fiddly. Especially on something like the Etrex, as it only has a joystick. The touch screen models are a bit quicker and easier, especially the ones with bigger screens (Oregon or Montana).
Then you can download the tracks and waypoints to a PC as GPX format, to use in an OSM editor.
You can load OSM maps on these Garmins.
I’m not sure about aerial imagery. You can buy Garmin Birdseye, and load that. Though I think coverage and quality of this may vary. Also, it is probably copyright, so you shouldn’t use it for mapping things for OSM. Or you could take screenshots of Bing aerial imagery, and load that on using the ‘custom maps’ feature. Though this would be a lot of work to get a large area.
And yes, the Garmins do have good battery life, much better than most phones. The Etrex will last about 25 hours on 2 AA batteries. Plus they are waterproof, and fairly rugged, which can be useful for hiking etc.